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Aug 28 07 5:30 AM

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Fractals

Jupiter

Jupiter




Fractal patterns have been found in traffic flows, music, cardiology, electronics, meteorology etc etc. All fractals are made by positive feedback, no matter what the medium. They are neither stable nor static. They teeter at the edge of chaos. A minute touch and they may fly into wild gyrations, but equally a massive heave may fail to budge them. Prediction is far from assured. Determinists are uncomfortable with them.
Plasma science is well established, not least through the search for the cheap, clean energy of nuclear fusion. The search has failed so far because it involves an electrical process relying on ‘Z pinch’, a feedback process which, not surprisingly, is capricious. But Nature has mastered the art.



Galaxy formation

NGC 7814

NGC 7814




Why does the pattern of galaxy super-clusters in space show fractal features?
Why do galaxies occur in clusters and chains?
Why are there spirals in sizes from superclusters, galaxies, through quasars, down to meteors?
Why do they often resemble hurricanes in shape?
Why do these spirals, even down to meteors, spit out jets of plasma?
Why do they radiate wide-spectrum electromagnetic energy?
Why do many spirals e.g NGC 7814 (see pic) resemble high-voltage arcs?
Why are some plasma jets periodic?
Why does the centre of our galaxy resemble a dynamo?
Why are the largest craters on planets and moons at or near the poles?


Twins

Tadpole Galaxy (US Hurrwarn/NOAA) / Hurricane Karl (NASA)

Tadpole Galaxy (US Hurrwarn/NOAA) / Hurricane Karl (NASA)




The resemblance between the shapes of ‘ordinary’ spiral galaxies and hurricanes was noted long ago, but the idea got no further, spirals are not remarkable enough.
However, a strange-looking hurricane in the Caribbean on 26 September 2002 is less easy to dismiss as accident. How did the mis-shapen hurricane ‘Karl’ come to bear such a strong likeness to the equally deviant ‘Tadpole Galaxy’? Pure coincidence or a shared formative process?



Disintegrating spirals

disintegratingspirals

Hurricane and galaxy shed an arm each.




The dynamics of hurricanes is fairly well understood and sheds light on galaxy formation:
Plumes of air warmed by the ground or sea rise and are spun into vortices by the Coriolis effect (result of earth’s rotation).
So for the comparison to hold up, galaxies and other spirals in space must have at least two features in common with hurricanes:
  1. Initial fluid jets/plumes.
  2. A spatial counterpart to the Coriolis effect to spin the jets into spirals.
Evidence for both is presented here, with the further observation that galaxies share with their terrestrial counterparts, a tendency to shed portions of themselves, including spiral arms. The formation of clusters and chains at all size levels can thus be explained by analogy.



Plasma Filament

Cygnus (APOD 8 Dec 2000)

Cygnus (APOD 8 Dec 2000)




Plumes and filaments are common enough in space. This is a quiet filament among many in Cygnus.



Spatial Electrics

Abel 1795 (IoA Cambridge/NASA)

Abel 1795 (IoA Cambridge/NASA)




Plasma (ionised gas) flows have been found by radio telescope. Any conductor, including plasma, moving in a magnetic field generates electricity.
This filament in Abel 1795 carries a current of trillions of amps along a chain of galaxies, calculated from the din of its wide-spectrum radio emissions.
There are so many filaments/plumes in space that one scientist described the scene as a ‘plasma spaghetti bowl’.


Plasma Ejections

PK336 (HST)

PK336 (HST)




Simultaneous, multiple ejections from galaxies, and on a smaller scale, from nebulas etc are common.



Proto-star

WR 104 (Space Sciences Lab Berkeley 1998)

WR 104 (Space Sciences Lab Berkeley 1998)




Smaller yet a proto-star emits jets.

Solar Ejection

A solar ejection

A solar ejection




Our own star, the sun, regularly emits spiralling plasma flares. Some escape, some don’t.



Terrestrial Ejection

Terrestrial ejection

Terrestrial ejection




Earth ejects plasma like any member of the hierarchy.
The Tunguska event, usually ascribed to an inpact, is better explained as a plasma ejection. See www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Cockpit/3240/.


Buckminster fullerenes (bucky balls)
Similarly, the rock/carbon deposits containing buckminster fullerenes (bucky balls) found in Karelia – www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev26-2/text/rndmain1.html.
Even the BBC is latching on to the idea that some flying saucers/UFOs sightings can be explained by plasma ejection – news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4981720.stm.





Spitting Comets

Hyakutake

Hyakutake




Hale-Bop

Hale-Bop




Next down in size: comets: Hyakutake (top) and Hale-Bop (above), both spirals, and spitting plasma and dust jets.
Note the resemblance of H-B’s core to a barred spiral galaxy.
Hale-Bop displaying seven jets (HB-ESO La Silla Telescope, 
Harpoint Observatory)

Hale-Bop displaying seven jets (HB-ESO La Silla Telescope, Harpoint Observatory)






Spiral Meteor

A single Leonid meteor displays two separate spiral tails (jets) 
(Nauyuki Kurita Nov 19 2001)

A single Leonid meteor displays two separate spiral tails (jets) (Nauyuki Kurita Nov 19 2001)




Several seconds later. (Nauyuki Kurita Nov 19 2001)

Several seconds later. (Nauyuki Kurita Nov 19 2001)


Tadpole & Mice Beads

Spiral Formation

(HST/NASA)

(HST/NASA)




(NASA)

(NASA)




The evidence for spiral-formation in plasma jets is extensive. The two ‘Mice’ galaxies and the ‘Tadpole’ have plasma ribbons with included spiral offspring.

Galaxy Chain

Spiral Formation

Markarian's Chain

Markarian's Chain




And most galaxies occur in clusters or chains like Markarian’s, showing their origins.


Twins?

Main image: M87 (NASA/Chandra) Inset: Perseid Meteor (Mike Oates, 
Manchester Astronomical Society, Aug 1989)

Main image: M87 (NASA/Chandra) Inset: Perseid Meteor (Mike Oates, Manchester Astronomical Society, Aug 1989)




NASA’s X-ray image reveals M87′s jet as a series of spiral plasma knots. Also note, the node/anti-node spacing could well stem from core resonance.
Inset is a pulsed meteor trail, again looking like resonance.


Milky Way

milky_way
The VLA radio telescope team in New Mexico plotted the electrical system at the centre of the Milky Way. One scientist likened the giant plasma loops found there to a dynamo. With the more recent discovery of plasma jets from the same vicinity there is good reason to connect the two, since electricity is known to be able to bring about nuclear fusion, if not the creation of matter. The electro-magnetic map of galaxy M82 looks much the same. (BBC News website 17 April 2000)
UCLA announced in March 15, 2006:
“We know the galactic center has a strong magnetic field that is highly ordered and that the magnetic field lines are oriented perpendicular to the plane of the galaxy:
http://www.newsroom.ucla.edu:80/page.asp?RelNum=6903
“.


Fractal Universe?

But now for the big one…

russian_dolls
What could the spatial equivalent of the Coriolis effect be? A rotating universe? Perhaps our’s is a rotating, spiral universe, the last and biggest. Or perhaps there is a next spiral up; one of an infinite, fractal set. Each level would appear finite to its denizens until better technology revealed more, and more and more…

Hypothesis

The universe consists of a series of spiral bodies of diminishing size each made in turn by plasma ejection and moulded by a spatial Coriolis effect: a rotating fractal universe.



Mandelbrot

mandelbrot
Benoit Mandelbrot

Benoit Mandelbrot




Benoit Mandelbrot announced in 1977 that the distribution of galaxies in space shows a fractal pattern.
Images from the best telescopes, equipped with CCD cameras and backed by digital processing, now show enough detail to add support to his observation.
The implications are immense.


What Makes A Fractal?

Koch Curve

Koch Curve



Any fractal is made by a simple, iterative (repeat) process. But this simple repetition can produce shapes of unbelievable complexity. Koch’s curve, for example, is made by putting a triangular kink in any straight line as in the diagram.
More repeats make for more complexity.
Zooming in on any section will reveal detail no different to anywhere else. There are comparable features in space.


Electro-Fractal Cosmos

Hoag Object

Hoag Object



The universe contains families of fractals shapes (hierarchies) wherever we look. Zooming in on the Hoag object and the Cartwheel Galaxy reveals miniature versions, as with the Koch curve. Tip: these faint details are better seen with magnification in a photo editing program.
Cartwheel Galaxy Centre (Anup Rej)

Cartwheel Galaxy Centre (Anup Rej)



See http://worldmultimedia.biz/Science/
The mere presence of such typical fractals means that the universe is not random. It can only be the product of an organising process.



Spiral Hierarchy

hierarchy

Spiral hierarchy in order of size:

  1. Virgo supercluster
  2. Galaxy
  3. Nebula
  4. Supergiant Achernar (diagram)
  5. Proto star and planets RXS J1311
  6. Comet Hale Bop.
Intermediate-sized objects are to be expected: ‘dwarf spherical galaxies’ for instance.
This fractal hierarchy means that other planetary systems are to be expected everywhere in the universe and that extra-terrestrial intelligence is not just a probability but is guaranteed.


Three Stacked Spirals

An internal fractal hierarchy. Three spirals stacked in concentric
 and co-planar mode. Russian dolls.

An internal fractal hierarchy



Three spirals stacked in concentric and co-planar mode. Russian dolls.



More Fractal Similarity

(Gemini, Gemini, Chandra.)

(Gemini, Gemini, Chandra.)



Gemini North team, Hawai’i have shown that the galaxies housing quasars are not exceptional or even undergoing extraordinary events (like collisions).
Notice similarity between quasar centre, galaxy and supernova, or a flower come to that.


Cosmic Grid System

Sn1987/Betelgeuse

Sn1987/Betelgeuse



A supernova and a star plugged into the cosmic grid.


Spatial Electricity & Plasma

M87 ejects plasmoids

M87 ejects plasmoids



Culham, UK Nuclear Fusion Plant

Culham, UK Nuclear Fusion Plant



Electricity is forty orders of magnitude stronger than gravity. Thus it dominates.
Slight ionisation (< 0.001%) in a plasma is enough to start electrical activity. This draws in nearby matter, ionised or not, increasing the energy and pull.
This ‘Z pinch’ is a feedback (iterative) process such as makes fractals.
A sufficiently high current produces enough heat for nuclear fusion. See Culham picture.
Solar loop/ejection

Solar loop/ejection



Plasma circuits have magnetic fields.
Broken circuits release their stored magnetic energy explosively. See solar loop picture.



Spatial Plasma Circuits

M83

M83



Solar Loops

Solar Loops



Plasma loops come in all sizes and are from plain and simple to complex/lacey.
NGC 1097

NGC 1097



This plasma flow map in NGC 1097 traces complex electrical loop circuits.

Lightning Galaxies

Dr Charles Bruce

Dr Charles Bruce

Dr Charles Bruce postulated in 1968 that spiral galaxy arms are huge lightning strikes. Recent work in radio astronomy bears him out.
Flows of electric current in these flat looped galactic circuits involves the movement of ions, Van der Graaf fashion, as indicated here by the short black lines. The gradual build up of opposite charges at the remote ends of the galaxy continues until electrical breakdown causes another lightning strike. Then charging begins again.
NGC 1097 (Max Planck Inst. Bonn.)

NGC 1097 (Max Planck Inst. Bonn.)

This charge/discharge periodicity, the basis of many earthly electronic clocks and timers, provides a cogent and overdue explanation for the many periodic objects in space: from pulsars to sunspot cycling. See later.
Flatness and spirality in celestial bodies is fundamental to the explanation of their generation of electricity and their shape.
http://www.catastrophism.com/texts/bruce/astro.htm



Fleming’s Rule

Fleming's Rule

Fleming's Rule

Fleming’s first rule was devised to show engineers the direction of rotation to be expected in an electric motor, but it also explains certain behaviours of celestial bodies, from comets to the largest structures known.

Electrical Engineering

NGC 1097

NGC 1097

v838

v838

Fleming’s rule applies to all conductors in a magnetic field including the plasma arms of galaxies.
Depending on the direction of the current flow, there is a resulting inward or outward force on the plasma circuits. It must be outward as shown, otherwise extinction, not growth, would result.
This suggests that growth proceeds by the formation of a series of loops, giving the flat mesh structure seen.
Loop luminosity is perhaps a measure of current strength and of the order of formation.
The movie (above) is not of a huge slow-moving galaxy, but of a smaller fractal relative, star V838 in Monoceros. The growth action is the same but far quicker.

Technical note: Galaxy model

Galaxy Model Alternator

Galaxy Model Alternator

Galaxy Model movie

Galaxy Model Alternator Movie

The alternator consists of conducting loops slicing through a magnetic field. Its output is lowest, but not zero, when the magnet and rotor are accurately coplanar and concentric. Any deviation improves efficiency dramatically, so fractal galactic wobbles can be expected to produce results from the sedate to pyrotecnic, depending on size.
The Hall effect nicely explains the separation of positive and negative flows in galactic plasma conductors ie. in the spiral arms. Note also that these are quantised, not linear and significantly, close observation reveals fractal behaviour. See www.nature.com/nature/journal/v422/n6930/fig_tab/422391a_F1.html.


Galaxy Growth

Thus multiplication of loops, analogous to cell growth in plants and animals, is postulated.
Step 1

Stage 1

Step 2

Stage 2

Step 3

Stage 3

Step 4

Stage 4

Four stages are shown but many intermediate ones are apparent in NASA’s picture. Thus galaxies are quasi-stable and will shed the outer layers like seeds during periods of high electrical activity. There is evidence – see next two slides.
Close-up

Close-up

Birth

NGC 5194-5

NGC 5194-5

Sideways ejection of an infant galaxy.
Supernova 1987

Supernova 1987

Supernova 1987 was a blue giant star of normal appearance before ‘going broody’. Its massive plasma rings were built in less than 10 years. Note the similarity of the center to the Cartwheel galaxy.

Quintuplets

RXS J1311

RXS J1311

Quasar RXS J1311, described by professionals as a ‘proto-stellar body’, appears to have pupped five planets.

Mathematical note:

The six areas of intense electrical activity imply a huge variation in the ratio of viscosity/magnetic diffusivity (Prandtl ratio) across the system.

‘Elliptical’ galaxies

NGC 4365

NGC 4365

This fractal theory holds that all celestial bodies, irrespective of size, are formed by the same fractal process, powered by the generation of electricity in rotating plasma circuits.
Even elliptical galaxies conform. Those which are face-on and amenable to digital processing show concealed inner spirals.
The sun too has indications of a similar inner structure. See next slide.

Solar Activity

Sun - Hard X-Ray - Temp Contours

Sun - Hard X-Ray - Temp Contours

Sun - plasma donut in UV

Sun - plasma donut in UV

The sun is not an obvious member of the hierarchy of flat spiral generators but the external evidence is not easily explained otherwise. Most activity is in the equatorial region and accordingly the ejected solar wind is flat. The scientists said they discovered the huge, electrically-charged plasma gas currents deep under the sun’s surface moving in patterns near the equator and around both poles. See CNN Sci-Tech.
Some supergiants have a distinctly flattened appearance – see next slide.
Like welding electrodes, the sun’s real shape is masked by glare.
Welding

Welding

The beta Cygni binary star (twin suns), being face-on to us, reveals the characteristic flat, spiral/loop structure of the hierarchy after a little image processing. Before left,  after on the right:-

The clock-like regularity of activities in the sun, Cepheid variables and RR Lyrae stars indicates that they have built-in oscillators, most likely utilising the negative resistance of plasma – more later.
Unwittingly NASA has provided pointers to flatness too

Unwittingly NASA has provided pointers to flatness too


Oblate Star

Supergiant star, Achernar, has a high degree of flattening (1:1.5) see diagram. It has a dust ring like elliptical galaxies, and like the sun, its solar wind is emitted equatorially. See astrophysics paper 359,65-706 (2000)
Some B[e] supergiants have axial plasma ejection/s and circumstellar dust like their much larger elliptical galaxy counterparts.
Both the Earth and Saturn have similar torroidal magnetic fields and flat equatorial current flows. Probably all the planets are similar.
Axial Ejection from elliptical galaxy

Axial Ejection from elliptical galaxy

Supergiant, Achernar

Supergiant, Achernar

Sun's Cool Poles, X-ray (NASA/SOHO)

Sun's Cool Poles, X-ray (NASA/SOHO)

The sun’s electrical activity is highest at lower latitudes. Hence the poles are cooler. Evidence for a flat sun.
Saturn (NASA)

Saturn (NASA)

Saturn has an equatorial ring current of about 10,000,000 Amps flowing about 600,000 kilometres up. Kilometric Radiation is its principal radio emission.



Atom-sized similarities

'Atomic Physics' (top, Max Born, published 1947, below, 
NASA/Chandra)

'Atomic Physics' (top, Max Born, published 1947, below, NASA/Chandra)

The resemblance of certain Schroedinger atomic shapes to planetary nebulae hints that atoms are tiny members of the postulated spiral hierarchy. Hence ejections may be expected in atoms as in galaxies, nebulae etc. See slides 28, 32. Excitation of the ground state flat spiral atoms would promote electrons into Scroedinger’s three-dimensional shapes as illustrated above.
DNA double helix (left), M87's jet (right)

DNA double helix (left), M87's jet (right)

The remarkable cork-screw likeness between the so-called DNA “nebula” and the living DNA molecule does not stop at the double twist. Both also have lateral cross-links joining the twin helical strands! Why the “nebula” (in fact a Herbig Haro-type jet) should have gene analogues is only explicable in terms of the Lorenz force and fractlal geometry: These lateral ejections show up in all high-resolution pictures of Herbig Haro jets: M87′s jet (see picture above), HH 34, 47, 410 etc.
The human genome comprises 24 doubly helical chromosomes each with rung-like genes. When divided at their ‘nodes’ and sorted by size they yield two hierarchies: one of 43 half units (below left) and a second of five halves of condensed nucleotides, (below right) derived from chromosomes #13,#14,#15, #21 and #22.  Hence we have a quantized series engendered by the familiar Lorenz force, through the resonance of the universal fractal process. Picture courtesy of Sally Ingram, quantum geneticist.
fractgenes3 copy



Shape of Ground State Atom?

Ground state atom

Ground state atom

The portrayal of atoms as resonant (tuned) circuits is entirely in line with the science of magnetic resonance: the diagnostic tool used in, for instance, medical imaging and chemical analysis. Further information on magnetic resonance is available on many websites, for instance Caltech’s.



Conclusion

HH111

HH111

Any theory of the universe has to address the growing list of new observations listed in the previous pages.
At the least it should include a mechanism with the subtlety to make spatial fractals and the speed and strength to structure the vast universe we see.
Uniquely electromagnetic energy and its resultant force has these and other attributes.
It provides a compelling explanation for the flatness of structures, from atoms to galaxy walls.
The gathering of matter by Z-pinch nicely explains voids.
The ability to store energy in magnetic fields and to bring about nuclear fusion is powerful stuff.
Many of the intractable problems which beset cosmology look amenable to an electronic approach especially considering the various modes and frequencies of oscillation.
The universe appears to be fractal, cyclic and self- regenerating. Implied is that it is eternal and infinite.



http://www.fractaluniverse.org/v2/